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HTML, CSS etc. Historical overview

The web was invented in 1989 and popularised in the years 1993-8. During this popularisation, the original markup language of the world wide web, HTML, was corrupted by a series of proprietary extensions by various companies. This meant that pages which work well in one browser would not display correctly in another.

To solve this problem the original inventor of the World Wide Web founded a not-for-profit company to oversee the publication of standards that would be widely supported. These web standards work in all browsers. Use them to construct your website and you will not have any trouble.

Web Standards

The particular web standards we would like you to use are:

See their pages for more information.


Frames have for some time now been deprecated (strongly discouraged) by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). If you use frames, please redesign your site to avoid using them. If you are just creating your website, do not use frames.


Unless you really know what you are doing, we recommend that you do not use JavaScript or anything else described as scripts. This is because they can introduce serious security issues and can infect visitors computers with viruses.


Doesn't work on iOS, amongst other things. Use HTML5 is replacing it, and should be used instead.


Visual effects are cute but do not work in most browsers. Avoid.


We do not require the use of style sheets, but it will make your work easier. Stylesheets allow you to consistently style all pages on your website.

Print Stylesheets

A print stylesheet is a stylesheet designed to style the document if it is printed.